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How I think the universe works  

or if it doesn't how it should !

Empty space is believed to be a seething mass of short lived particles which are continually popping in and out of existence (the zero point field theory).

Normally nothing appears but like water molecules evaporating in air, these particles might evaporate in the space equivalent of a vacuum, which I suggest is simply the lack of a gravitational field.
So, in a complete void where there is no gravity, particles can appear out of nowhere.

Like This

Where Green is void (no gravity)
Red is positive
Blue is negative

Polar Universe

My idea is simply that if Newton’s law of the conservation of energy is to be obeyed then this evaporation will have to give rise to a pair of opposite (polar) entities, one positive and the other negative.

Suppose they gravitationally interact in the opposite manner to electrical charge, i.e.
positive attracts positive,
negative attracts negative, but
positive repels negative.


In primeval 3 dimensional space zero gravitational (void) conditions prevail, so a pair of entities (twins) could be born anywhere, one having positive gravity and the other negative gravity.
They would fly away from each other in an undefined direction defining a line of two nodes.
Their gravitational fields would cancel each other out on a 2 dimensional plane equally spaced between them.

On this plane another pair of twins could be born.
These would again fly away from each other confined to the void plane defining a rectangle of four nodes.

Their fields would cancel each other out on a void line equally spaced between them.


On this line another pair of twins could be born and fly away along it forming an octahedron of six nodes.

There would then be a void point at the centre in which nothing could escape.


However our existing entities would have started to move together through gravitational attraction into clusters.
This would distort the octahedral shape and our void point would change back into a void line.

On this line the void conditions prevail, so another pair of twins could be born, making a cube of eight nodes.

And so on….

The Universe

As more entities are born and more clusters form particles we are familiar with could form and grow into atoms, molecules and eventually galaxies of normal (positive) mass and negative (anti) mass, all repelling each other.
The void line would snake between them in a complicated path in which twins would continue to be born.

Questions and Answers

Isn’t my supposition that entities interact in the opposite manner to electrical charge absurd.
Apparently not so. Changing the sign is not without precedence in maths.   Minkowski used the technique to explain Einstein’s space/time.

What would anti-mass look like?
As mass bends light towards it, I suppose, anti-mass would deflect light away from it making it invisible.
Where does all this matter come from and will it ever run out.
Perhaps when the universe ends, black holes will have converted all the mass into energy which could be the driving force for the forming of my polar entities in the next universe. (Sir Roger Penrose)

How to make a Starship Drive

If we could obtain a useful amount of anti-mass,  enough to cancel out the surrounding gravity field, then we would have a situation in which both mass and anti-mass would be created in the void surrounding it without any input of energy.
This mass might then be extracted from the containment vessel to provide inexhaustible amounts of fuel for a spaceship.

Like This

The birth of the AmJet ?
(anti mass jet).

Questions & Answers

What would the containment vessel look like?
An empty sphere. The anti-mass would position itself at the centre of it.

What would happen if the containment vessel failed.
The anti-mass inside it would simply fly away, repelled by the Earth’s gravitational field.

What would it be like to fly into an anti-mass galaxy.
We would be deflected away from it.

Could we get far enough in to an anti-mass galaxy to capture a bit of it.
Not without an AmJet.


On Earth the anti-mass might also make the vessel light enough to make an anti-gravity device.
The AmLev.
No more noisy helicopters


A super computer model could be designed to simulate and track the pattern of entities emitted at various angles to see if they look like our universe.

Man made anti-mass could be found to possess anti-gravity.

Anti-gravitational lensing might be observed.

AmJets and AmLevs could be built.


We could be living in a kind of gravity monopole and the other monopole,the anti-mass universe, could be our so called dark matter.

Its galaxies with their negative gravity interspersed throughout our universe could be the force constraining the expansion of our galaxies.

The first moments are not necessarily explosive in this model and expansion could continue indefinitely as in the steady state theory.

This seems to me to be an elegant explanation for the origin and expansion of the universe.

© Copyright 2018 Ken Freeman